This assignment is for a Genetic Engineering class – BIO 308 at Cal Poly.
This is an Outline only assignment that states the following:
Instructions for the outline section of this paper.
In your outline you must include:
1. All three parts of the assignment
I suggest spending the most time on Part III.
2. Answers to all the questions posed in the research paper instructions
You may include additional information not required by a specific question in the instructions.
You do not have to have all the details or a complete understanding of the technology yet but you need to include the basics.
Mark places where you plan on filling in more information.
3. References for all statement of facts. Use in-text citations in the outline.
· Keeping track of your sources throughout the writing process saves you time and prevents you from accidentally plagiarizing later on in the writing process.
4. Use a hierarchical outline structure to show paragraph grouping of topics.
· The particular format (numbers, letters, etc) is not important to me as long as it is consistent and easy to follow.
5. I prefer you do NOT write in complete sentences for an outline but you may if you want to.
Please see the following file or attachment to further understand how to write the outline.
PS: I also attached an outline from another research oaper I wrote for the same class. Please follow the same outline and just replace the Malaria information with Anti-Aging information that I also attached the Annotated Bibliography for. You can use the Annotated Bibliography file for the sources. Please find one extra primary source because the professor asked for an extra one to be added on top of what is in the Annotated Bibliography file.
**Do Not Include A Reference Page. I will add that at the end. Indlude the links you used for the extra primary source you should include and any extrnal links you have used at the end of the paper please.
BIO 308 Research Paper Assignment
In this assignment you will write an article for a science magazine, such as National Geographic or
Scientific American, about whether a particular application of genetic engineering should be used. When
o Style: As a science magazine article, the paper should be both informative and entertaining. This
is an opportunity to have fun in your writing style.
o Audience: General public who are interested in science but may not have background knowledge
about genetics or biology. This means you need to explain in layman’s terms how the science
works. This is your opportunity to show in writing that you understand the biological concepts we
are studying in class.
o Purpose: To express your opinion about whether a particular genetic engineering application
should be used. You are presenting arguments to persuade the audience of your point of view.
Choosing your topic: The Topic For my Research Paper is About Anti-Aging.
Your article must be about an application of genetic engineering currently being investigated or used to
solve a societal, economic, commercial, or health problem. You are encouraged to choose a topic related
to your major (but this is not required). You may choose a topic covered in class. Be narrow and specific
in your topic. For example, if you are interested in genetically modified crops, then pick a specific
crop/species (such as corn) and a specific problem (such as insect-resistance). This will help focus your
Part 1 – Introduction & describing the problem
One theme of the class is that genetic engineering is used to solve problems. In your introduction
describe the problem being addressed by this application of genetic engineering.
Include the answers to the following questions:
o What social, economic, commercial, or health problem is being addressed or solved by this
application of genetic engineering?
o Why is this problem important to solve?
o What non-genetic engineering strategies have been or are currently being used to address this
problem? (Describe at least 1)
o What are the advantages and disadvantages of the non-genetic engineering technique(s)?
(Describe at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage).
You may also include other background information relevant to your problem.
Part 2 – Applying genetic engineering
Describe how genetic engineering is being used to address the problem and how the technology works.
Include the answers to the following questions (if the question is applicable to your particular
o What is the goal of this application of genetic engineering? How will this application solve (or
partially solve) the problem described in Part 1?
o Which gene(s) are used, modified, manipulated, and/or inserted in this application? What protein
and function does the gene encode for?
o What organism does the manipulated gene come from and what organism is it being engineered
o What phenotypic trait is being changed by the genetic engineering? How so? How does this relate
to the function of the gene? How does this relate to solving the problem?
o What genetic engineering technology is being used in the genetic engineering? How does it
o How is the recombinant DNA or gene editing system (such as CRISPR) introduced into the target
Remember to define and explain scientific and technological terms and processes in layman’s terms. This
section is your opportunity to show that you understand the genetic engineering techniques covered in
class. If you like, you may use a figure or diagram to help explain the process but this is not required.
Part 3 – Analysis and evaluation of the genetic engineering application
Many applications of genetic engineering are controversial. Proponents and opponents cite different
evidence and draw different conclusions. In this final section you will analyze these arguments and
express your opinion about whether you think this genetic engineering application should be used to solve
this problem. You are trying to persuade the reader of your view using evidence, logical arguments, and
critical analysis of others’ arguments.
Include the answers to the following questions. You do not have to follow this order.
o For each of 2 or 3 controversial topics or claims about the genetic engineering technology:
o Identify and describe the claim.
o Identify who the proponents and opponents of this claim are.
o Describe the arguments made in support of and against this claim.
Include specific evidence for each side.
o Critically analyze the evidence.
o State your opinion: do you believe the claim? Explain why or why not.
o What are the moral or philosophical considerations when applying this genetic engineering
application? (Describe at least 1)
o Who has raised these concerns/considerations?
o What kind of ethics system are they using?
o Do you agree or disagree with these concerns/considerations?
o Compare and contrast the genetic engineering approach to the non-genetic engineering methods
you discussed at the beginning of the paper. Which offers a better solution to the problem?
o What is your overall opinion of using this genetic engineering application? Should it be used?
o Explain your reasoning, including the kind of ethics system you are using.
Format: 1.5 spacing, 12 pt font, Times New Roman. 1 inch margins. The paper must be at least 8 pages
long and no more than 12 pages long (not including references).
o Use active voice more than passive voice.
o Do not include quotations of sources. Instead rewrite the material in your own words and cite the
source. This shows me that you understand the concept you are writing about.
o Use concise sentences and paragraphs.
All statement of facts and ideas that are not your own must be cited with a reference. You may cite the
course textbook or lecture notes for material covered in class if you do not have another source.
In your works cited section, list your references alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Format
your references in a consistent manner. In-text citations must follow the (Author, Date) format. This
allows the reader (including me) to quickly assess how old the information cited is.
I recommend Chicago style but other reference formats are also acceptable. Chicago style is a major
reference style used in the natural sciences. For more information on using this style see:
I encourage you to use a reference manager when writing. Microsoft Word has a built in reference
manager and as a Cal Poly student you have free access to EndNote Online.
References do NOT count toward the page minimum.
The paper must have a minimum of 8 references. At least 4 of these sources must be from non-website
sources (the sources may be found online but are not solely published as a webpage). At least 2 of the 8
references must be primary sources (e.g. research articles).
Website references must be accompanied by a short (3-5 sentence) annotation that evaluates the
credibility of source. Analyze the credentials of the author or sponsoring organization, what their agenda
is, and/or how much evidence they cite and what kind. See http://lib.calpoly.edu/help-and-support/writean-annotated-bibliography/ for more information on an annotated bibliography.
See attached files.
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