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How do banding patterns change when a muscle contracts?

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PRE-LAB QUESTIONS

1. How do banding patterns change when a muscle contracts?

2. What is the difference between a muscle organ, a muscle fiber, a myofibril, and a myofilament?

3. Outline the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle contraction. At what point is ATP used and why?

4. Explain why rigor mortis occurs.  

EXPERIMENT 1: TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS 

Post-Lab Questions

1. Identify the components in the slide image below based on your observations from the experiment. 

 

 

A_______________

 

B_______________

 

2. Identify the components in the slide image below based on your observations from the experiment. 

 

 

A_______________

 

B_______________

3. Identify the components in the slide image below based on your observations from the experiment. 

 

 

A_______________

 

B_______________

 

4. How does the extracellular matrix of connective tissues contribute to its function?

5. Why are tendons and ligaments difficult to heal? 

6. What differences do you see between the tendon-muscle insertion images and the tendon images?

7. What differences do you see between the tendon and ligament images?

 

EXPERIMENT 2: THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

Post-Lab Questions

1. Identify the axon, terminal branches, and muscle fibers in the slide image below. If possible, trace the fiber to its terminus. 

 

 

2. Are there few or many nuclei at the end plate?

3. What is a motor neuron?

4. How is greater muscle force generated (in terms of motor unit recruitment)?

5. What types of sensors are present within the muscle to identify how much force is generated?

EXPERIMENT 3: MUSCLE FATIGUE

Data Tables

Table 2: Experimental Counts

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5

Predicted Value

Actual Value

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. How did the predicted results compare to the actual results?

2. Did you notice any changes in the number of repetitions you could perform or how your hand felt after each trial?

3. Explain the actions that were occurring at the cellular level to produce this movement. Include sources of energy and any possible effect of muscle fatigue. 

4. Hypothesize what would happen if you restricted blood flow during the experiment. 

EXPERIMENT 4: GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Data Tables

Table 3: Gross Anatomy Data

Movement Muscle(s) Activated Action(s) of Muscle(s)

Forearm Extended (Step 1)  

Fingers Extended and Splayed (Step 1)  

Fingers Retracted (Step 1)  

Forearm Pressed Down Upon (Step 2)  

Elbow Bent (Step 3)  

Arm Raised to Side with Heavy Object (Step 4)  

Arm Extended Back with Heavy Object (Step 4)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

(lower limbs; student selects action…)  

Post-Lab Questions

1. Label the human muscle diagram. 

 

 

A________________

 

B________________

 

C________________

 

D________________

 

E________________

 

F________________

 

G________________

 

H________________

 

2. Which muscle(s) were used to extend your arms backward?  

3. Which muscle(s) were used to extend and splay your fingers outward? 

EXPERIMENT 5: BIODIGITAL DISSECTION – THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Images

Photo 1: Medial Muscles of the Upper Extremities

 

 

Photo 2: Upper Back and Shoulder

 

 

Photo 3: Abdominal and Intercostal Muscles

 

 

Photo 4: Superficial Muscles of the Lower Limb

 

 

 

 

Photo 5: Additional Muscles of the Lateral Lower Extremity

 

 

Photo 6: Superficial Muscles of the Medial Thigh

 

 

 

 

Photo 7: Muscles of the Medial Lower Extremity

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. How many layers of abdominal muscle are there?

2. What direction do the muscle fibers of the external oblique run?

3. Why are muscle fibers considered excitable?

4. Why is it important to have both flexors and extensors?

5. How can muscle mass be influenced by training or age?

 

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