Categories

# CS 6601 Artificial Intelligence: Pattern Recognition Through Time

\$20 Bonus + 25% OFF

## Questions:

### Pattern Recognition Through Time (16 points)

#### Section A

Dynamic Time Warping is a robust algorithm for determining similarity between two time-series sequences and can be applied to a large range of problems in the fields of shape recognition, handwriting recognition, and speech recognition. It allows for more flexibility than the Euclidean distance metric, and is used on data that has a large amount of variance. See the figure below for a visual depiction of how these two algorithms compare two similar time-series by comparing individual data points. Note that the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm matches data points that we would consider to be most suitable for comparison, while the Euclidean matching algorithm is a bit more naive.

One modern application of this algorithm is the classification of animal speech, in particular the classification of birdsongs. In this problem you’ll work through the details of such a classification system.

A young bird learning birdsongs can be compared to a toddler learning their first language. Initially the bird experiments with vocal abilities without organization, but through observation of parents and other members of the local community the bird slowly refines its song until it can reproduce the tune near-perfectly. Due to the reliance on learning from other local birds, different communities of birds of the same species can have slightly differing birdsongs. These locality and age factors can make it difficult to accurately recognize a bird’s species from it’s birdsong, but one successful method of solving this problem is by applying Dynamic Time Warping.

To construct a classification system, researchers first collect a large amount of data concerning birdsongs across many species, ages, and localities and construct a representative database. For this simplified problem, our database is comprised of the two species below: a yellow wagtail and a skylark. The waveforms show the typical form of the birdsong, while the time-series data represents the measurements that are actually in our database.

When a new birdsong from an unknown bird is recorded, the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm is applied to compare the new reading against birdsongs in the database, and the most similar bird is used as the classification label.

How do we actually perform the algorithm? Given two time series sequences A and B, a matrix of size (|A| x |B|) is initialized, and each element γ(  i,j   ) is computed using the following formula:

Fig 3: Application on example sequences A and B

Each element γ(  i,j   ) represents the total DTW distance if elements , are matched together. The most important value in this matrix is at the very top right, the value that indicates the total distance when all elements of both sequences have been matched; the total distance between A and B. To find which data points have been matched together, also known as the warping path or global alignment, you can work the algorithm backwards. Starting at the top right element, follow the neighbor that you used to calculate that element until you reach the bottom left. Given a tie in neighboring values, move diagonally, and continue to move diagonally until the tie is resolved. Every pair (i,j) in this path is the optimal pairing used to find the total distance.

Fig 4: Example of Warping Path

A1. Recorded birdsong is given to you with a frequency time-series sequence of:

1. Fill the table below as shown in Fig. 3 to perform the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm and find the total distance between the new time series and our database entry for the yellow wagtail. (3 points)
1. Find the Warping Path of the above computation and show which pairings are in our warping path by finding the path as shown in Fig. 4, and listing which data points from our Y axis are paired with the data points from our X axis. (1 point)
 X-Axis Point Y-Axis Points 8 8 6 7 5 3 9 2
1. Find the Dynamic Time Warping distance between the new time series and our database entry for the skylark. (3 points)
1. Find the Warping Path of the above computation and show which pairings are in our warping path by finding the path as shown in Fig. 4, and listing which data points from our Y axis are paired with the data points from our X axis. (1 point)
 X-Axis Point Y-Axis Points 8 8 6 7 5 3 9 2

### Section B: Sakoe-Chiba Bands

This naive implementation of DTW has a time complexity of   (   ·   ) and a space complexity of   (   ·   ), where N and M are the lengths of the two time sequences. This is one of the most cited reasons to not use DTW. Another common reason is that the algorithm may be too flexible. For example, it may be realistic to match one datapoint from A to three data points from B, but it would almost certainly be inaccurate to match one datapoint from A to half the data points from B. Take a look at the example paths below, where the green path is acceptable and the red path is not very useful. Sakoe-Chiba bands are a prevalent solution to both these issues. In this section, you are going to compute the distance between two time series using this technique.

Fig 5: Comparison of DTW Paths

The path directly from the bottom left to top right of the above matrix represents a strict pairing where each point from A can be paired with only one point from B. This is inflexible, and a naive DTW allows us to disregard this constraint. However, Sakoe-Chiba bands impose the constraint that any element on the optimal path cannot be too far from this strict pairing. Below are examples of Sakoe-Chiba bands of degree N, where we will only evaluate the matrix elements a distance N away from the strict pairing line. Examine the examples below, where the gray boxes are disregarded in DTW calculations:

Fig 6: Visualization of Sakoe-Chiba bands

B.1 Using the same time-series data used in the previous problems, [8,8,6,7,5,3,0,9,2]:

1. Find the Dynamic Time Warping distance to our database entry for the yellow wagtail using the Sakoe-Chiba bands shown below. (3 points)
1. Find the Warping Path of the above computation and show which pairings are in our warping path by finding the path as shown in Fig. 4, and listing which data points from our Y axis are paired with the data points from our X axis. (1 point)
 X-Axis Point Y-Axis Points 8 8 6 7 5 3 9 2
1. Find the Dynamic Time Warping distance to our database entry for the skylark using the Sakoe-Chiba band shown below. (3 points)
1. Find the Warping Path of the above computation and show which pairings are in our warping path by finding the path as shown in Fig. 4, and listing which data points from our Y axis are paired with the data points from our X axis. (1 point)
 X-Axis Point Y-Axis Points 8 8 6 7 5 3 9 2

### CS 6601 Artificial Intelligence

Solved by qualified expert

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Amet dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Neque convallis a cras semper auctor neque vitae. Elit at imperdiet dui accumsan. Nisl condimentum id venenatis a condimentum vitae sapien pellentesque. Imperdiet massa tincidunt nunc pulvinar sapien et ligula. Malesuada fames ac turpis egestas maecenas pharetra convallis posuere. Et ultrices neque ornare aenean euismod. Suscipit tellus mauris a diam maecenas sed enim. Potenti nullam ac tortor vitae purus faucibus ornare. Morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada. Morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada. Tellus pellentesque eu tincidunt tortor aliquam. Sit amet purus gravida quis blandit. Nec feugiat in fermentum posuere urna. Vel orci porta non pulvinar neque laoreet suspendisse interdum. Ultricies tristique nulla aliquet enim tortor at auctor urna. Orci sagittis eu volutpat odio facilisis mauris sit amet.

Tellus molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui. Tellus molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui. Ac tortor vitae purus faucibus ornare suspendisse sed nisi. Pharetra et ultrices neque ornare aenean euismod. Pretium viverra suspendisse potenti nullam ac tortor vitae. Morbi quis commodo odio aenean sed. At consectetur lorem donec massa sapien faucibus et. Nisi quis eleifend quam adipiscing vitae proin sagittis nisl rhoncus. Duis at tellus at urna condimentum mattis pellentesque. Vivamus at augue eget arcu dictum varius duis at. Justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Blandit libero volutpat sed cras ornare arcu. Ac felis donec et odio pellentesque diam volutpat commodo. Convallis a cras semper auctor neque. Tempus iaculis urna id volutpat lacus. Tortor consequat id porta nibh.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Amet dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Neque convallis a cras semper auctor neque vitae. Elit at imperdiet dui accumsan. Nisl condimentum id venenatis a condimentum vitae sapien pellentesque. Imperdiet massa tincidunt nunc pulvinar sapien et ligula. Malesuada fames ac turpis egestas maecenas pharetra convallis posuere. Et ultrices neque ornare aenean euismod. Suscipit tellus mauris a diam maecenas sed enim. Potenti nullam ac tortor vitae purus faucibus ornare. Morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada. Morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada. Tellus pellentesque eu tincidunt tortor aliquam. Sit amet purus gravida quis blandit. Nec feugiat in fermentum posuere urna. Vel orci porta non pulvinar neque laoreet suspendisse interdum. Ultricies tristique nulla aliquet enim tortor at auctor urna. Orci sagittis eu volutpat odio facilisis mauris sit amet.

Tellus molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui. Tellus molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui. Ac tortor vitae purus faucibus ornare suspendisse sed nisi. Pharetra et ultrices neque ornare aenean euismod. Pretium viverra suspendisse potenti nullam ac tortor vitae. Morbi quis commodo odio aenean sed. At consectetur lorem donec massa sapien faucibus et. Nisi quis eleifend quam adipiscing vitae proin sagittis nisl rhoncus. Duis at tellus at urna condimentum mattis pellentesque. Vivamus at augue eget arcu dictum varius duis at. Justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Blandit libero volutpat sed cras ornare arcu. Ac felis donec et odio pellentesque diam volutpat commodo. Convallis a cras semper auctor neque. Tempus iaculis urna id volutpat lacus. Tortor consequat id porta nibh.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Hac habitasse platea dictumst vestibulum rhoncus est pellentesque. Amet dictum sit amet justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Neque convallis a cras semper auctor neque vitae. Elit at imperdiet dui accumsan. Nisl condimentum id venenatis a condimentum vitae sapien pellentesque. Imperdiet massa tincidunt nunc pulvinar sapien et ligula. Malesuada fames ac turpis egestas maecenas pharetra convallis posuere. Et ultrices neque ornare aenean euismod. Suscipit tellus mauris a diam maecenas sed enim. Potenti nullam ac tortor vitae purus faucibus ornare. Morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada. Morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada. Tellus pellentesque eu tincidunt tortor aliquam. Sit amet purus gravida quis blandit. Nec feugiat in fermentum posuere urna. Vel orci porta non pulvinar neque laoreet suspendisse interdum. Ultricies tristique nulla aliquet enim tortor at auctor urna. Orci sagittis eu volutpat odio facilisis mauris sit amet.

Tellus molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui. Tellus molestie nunc non blandit massa enim nec dui. Ac tortor vitae purus faucibus ornare suspendisse sed nisi. Pharetra et ultrices neque ornare aenean euismod. Pretium viverra suspendisse potenti nullam ac tortor vitae. Morbi quis commodo odio aenean sed. At consectetur lorem donec massa sapien faucibus et. Nisi quis eleifend quam adipiscing vitae proin sagittis nisl rhoncus. Duis at tellus at urna condimentum mattis pellentesque. Vivamus at augue eget arcu dictum varius duis at. Justo donec enim diam vulputate ut. Blandit libero volutpat sed cras ornare arcu. Ac felis donec et odio pellentesque diam volutpat commodo. Convallis a cras semper auctor neque. Tempus iaculis urna id volutpat lacus. Tortor consequat id porta nibh.

MyAssignmenthelp.com greets students with outstanding quality of assignments that was a dream before. We are composed of world-class writers with extraordinary writing skills. If you find yourself stuck in between a lengthy and complex project, connect with us immediately through our flexible communication modes. We are just a click away and ready to respond instantaneously. Our 3000+ authors work with genuine efforts to get your assignments done on time. Every minute is valuable; we do not waste your time making unexpected delay. We provide custom essay help, dissertation writing services and online assignment help all under one roof. MyAssignmenthelp.com offers wide-ranging academic assignment help services at a very nominal rate.

## More CS6601 CS 6601 Artificial Intelligence: Questions & Answers

### Management

This assessment task is about the presentation of Final Project outcomes. You are required to present your project using either Microsoft Power Point or a PDF presentation file. You are also required to submit the presentation and the project source code by the due date of this assessment item via T …

### Implementing SQL

Case:
MySQL is the open source relational database that has been for the developing web based applications. The database is set for collecting the data with accessing, managing, searching and the data replication. The files and the system are held by the RDBMS which is a software for the enabling o …

### MA1008 Introduction to Computing

1.IntroductionThe objective of the mini project is for you to produce a program of a moderate size that will require you to utilised what you have learned in this course, and more, to do something interesting.This project requires you to write a program that can be used to design and display repeate …

### Management

Write a shell script (to run on the Bourne shell) that can be used to remove some old C programs you no longer wish to keep. When the script is run with no arguments supplied, it picks up each C program from the current directory and lists the first 10 lines (hint: research the headcommand). It then …

### Content Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this content and no longer wish to have your work published on Myassignmenthelp.com then please raise the
content removal request.

##### James Irby

Organised Operations & Supply Chain Expert

1418 – Completed Orders

Hire Me

## Still in Two Minds? The Proof is in Numbers!

33845 Genuine Reviews With a Rating of 4.9/5.

#### Assignment

3 days

Very quick done and professional job. Helped me to gain good marks. Easy to read as answers given very clear.

User ID: 5***21 Blanchardstown, Ireland

#### Statistics

11 hours

Thank you very much… YOU ARE A GREAT WRITER ! You provide this answer and saved my life !

User ID: 8***32 Blanchardstown, Sri Lanka

#### Civil Law

4 hours

Thanks for the time response and helped me in successfully submitting the assignment. Thanks for this time

User ID: 8***31 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Economics

2 hours

Thanks for helping at short notice. Great quality, in the short time provided. All the best

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Management

5 days

This report addresses the assignment brief very well, with much detail on Unilever online presence. The recommendation are good, and more detail/ less …

User ID: 8***01 England, Great Britain

#### Maths

54 minutes

Super quick response time, great detail and construction of the solution. Many thanks for your help in this assignment. All the best

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Maths

1 hour

The new answer seems correct and is well explained in detail. Thank you for reviewing the work and for your help on this assignment. All the best.

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Maths

1 hour

Very good solution, well explained in detail. Thank you very much for your help on this assignment. All the best.

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Finance

7 days

Awesome work! I am fully satisfied with the quality of the content. The writers worked hard to deliver such a deep and wide content. Keep it up.

User ID: 8***46 Batu Caves, Malaysia

#### Nursing

4 days

This powerpoint was neat and concise. The expert definitely followed through with what was asked.

User ID: 6***42 Batu Caves, United States

#### Nursing

5 days

well written assignment. good references and all done in a timely manner. pricing was good and support available when needed

User ID: 6***93 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Maths

2 hours

Great, very clear, thank you very much For your help on this assignment. All the best

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Marketing

3 days

This website has been absolutely amazing and been very helpful and beneficial to my progress in my program.

User ID: 5***18 Mobile, United States

#### Electronics

7 days

seems good (ok i am only writing this because of 80 characters, what more that seems good do you want?)

User ID: 8***00 Mobile, France

#### Biology

1 day

The effort and work they do is excellent and they have a great speed to complete tasks, I will always cooperate with them

User ID: 8***67 Belfast, Great Britain

#### Statistics

4 days

the assignment is good which gave me a good marks and feedback i got from uni is good attempt

User ID: 6***66 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Biology

5 days

good and fast will use again helped me understand more I was able to incorporate the work done with mine

User ID: 8***83 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Civil Law

8 days

written very well, appreciate the help with writing this assignment. will definitely go through you this service again. very happy

User ID: 7***52 Brisbane, Australia

#### Assignment

14 days

awesome work was very well written and covered all basics of the assignment. appreciate the help.

User ID: 7***52 Brisbane, Australia

#### Organizational Behavior

2 days

The content was great and right on the mark. Very comprehensive and descriptive.

User ID: 8***23 Brisbane, Australia

#### Assignment

3 days

Very quick done and professional job. Helped me to gain good marks. Easy to read as answers given very clear.

User ID: 5***21 Blanchardstown, Ireland

#### Statistics

11 hours

Thank you very much… YOU ARE A GREAT WRITER ! You provide this answer and saved my life !

User ID: 8***32 Blanchardstown, Sri Lanka

#### Civil Law

4 hours

Thanks for the time response and helped me in successfully submitting the assignment. Thanks for this time

User ID: 8***31 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Economics

2 hours

Thanks for helping at short notice. Great quality, in the short time provided. All the best

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Management

5 days

This report addresses the assignment brief very well, with much detail on Unilever online presence. The recommendation are good, and more detail/ less …

User ID: 8***01 England, Great Britain

#### Maths

54 minutes

Super quick response time, great detail and construction of the solution. Many thanks for your help in this assignment. All the best

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Maths

1 hour

The new answer seems correct and is well explained in detail. Thank you for reviewing the work and for your help on this assignment. All the best.

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Maths

1 hour

Very good solution, well explained in detail. Thank you very much for your help on this assignment. All the best.

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Finance

7 days

Awesome work! I am fully satisfied with the quality of the content. The writers worked hard to deliver such a deep and wide content. Keep it up.

User ID: 8***46 Batu Caves, Malaysia

#### Nursing

4 days

This powerpoint was neat and concise. The expert definitely followed through with what was asked.

User ID: 6***42 Batu Caves, United States

#### Nursing

5 days

well written assignment. good references and all done in a timely manner. pricing was good and support available when needed

User ID: 6***93 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Maths

2 hours

Great, very clear, thank you very much For your help on this assignment. All the best

User ID: 8***61 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Marketing

3 days

This website has been absolutely amazing and been very helpful and beneficial to my progress in my program.

User ID: 5***18 Mobile, United States

#### Electronics

7 days

seems good (ok i am only writing this because of 80 characters, what more that seems good do you want?)

User ID: 8***00 Mobile, France

#### Biology

1 day

The effort and work they do is excellent and they have a great speed to complete tasks, I will always cooperate with them

User ID: 8***67 Belfast, Great Britain

#### Statistics

4 days

the assignment is good which gave me a good marks and feedback i got from uni is good attempt

User ID: 6***66 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Biology

5 days

good and fast will use again helped me understand more I was able to incorporate the work done with mine

User ID: 8***83 United Kingdom, Great Britain

#### Civil Law

8 days

written very well, appreciate the help with writing this assignment. will definitely go through you this service again. very happy

User ID: 7***52 Brisbane, Australia

#### Assignment

14 days

awesome work was very well written and covered all basics of the assignment. appreciate the help.

User ID: 7***52 Brisbane, Australia