MSN570 Week 1 Case Studies
A 72 year old male presents with a reduced ejection fraction, D/T left ventricular hypertrophy.
1. What is the most likely cause of left ventricular hypertrophy?
2. How does this type of cellular adaptation relate to the inability of heart muscle cells to undergo division?
3. Briefly explain how cellular adaptation provides an “advantage” to the heart muscle; and, explain how cellular adaptation may ultimately contribute to heart “failure” if the underlying stress is not reversed.
4. Describe cellular adaptations that occur during atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia and metaplasia and identify conditions when each can occur.
A 2 two year old male presents with a retinal tumor and ultimately Retinoblastoma.
1. What is retinoblastoma, and what is the pattern of inheritance for this type of cancer?
2. What type of gene is the retinoblastoma gene, and how does mutation in this gene give rise to cancer? Be sure to indicate the consequences of mutating one or both of the alleles for this gene.
3. What is the difference between a germline and a somatic mutation?
4. What is the normal function of the pRB protein with regard to cell cycle regulation?
An 18 year old male presents with ADHD, small testes and learning disabilities. After a workup it is determined that he has a kerotype 47 XXY.
1. Discuss meiosis and mitosis.
2. Are the concepts of diffusion, active transport or osmosis implicated in various genetic conditions? If so, how? If not, explain.
3. Can genetics conditions be reversed, why ore why not?
A 15 year old male presents after ingesting windshield wiper fluid to get high. Explain what will happen to the following:
2. Sodium levels
3. Oncotic pressure