“A comparison of the art (works overall or “oeuvres”) of two artists of focus from Modules for Wk. 2 or 3. *You may start out with a close comparison of two particular works and then move to a broader comparison, or start with a general comparison about styles and/or subjects associated with the work of each artist broadly, and then within the paper have at least one close comparison of two works. *Please choose painters/paintings (as that is where the most focus is the first few weeks).

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“A comparison of the art (works overall or “oeuvres”) of two artists of focus from Modules for Wk. 2 or 3.
*You may start out with a close comparison of two particular works and then move to a broader comparison, or start with a general comparison about styles and/or subjects associated with the work of each artist broadly, and then within the paper have at least one close comparison of two works. *Please choose painters/paintings (as that is where the most focus is the first few weeks).

Sculpture: Brief info. on Rodin (sculpture); historians have linked his work to the Impressionists because of his interest in light on sculptural surface and because he was friends with several Impressionists and exhibited with not (not in the main Impressionist exhibitions). Also, however, he is connect to Symbolism, due to his subject matter and emotion.

Rodin’s methods (insight into scuptural production/reproduction in general):

https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/rodin-production-techniques (链接到外部网站。)

Rodin’s style (at least browse quickly):

http://www.musee-rodin.fr/en/resources/educational-files/human-body-rodins-sculpture (链接到外部网站。)

 

“Fin de siecle” = French term for a collective “end of the century” mood [not really a “style”] in Europe — apprehensive about the future and recent developments in society. The term was very loose in encompassing a range of styles and subjects — Toulouse-Lautrec’s dark nightclub scenes are relevant. In a different formal direction, a loose group known as Symbolists — in a way, it can be looked at as a direction in Post-Impressionism more broadly–away from reality and some “retro” aspects / e.g., looking back to mythological and biblical themes. Antecedents, or precedents included aspects of Romanticism and the Pre-Raphaelites. Some art theorists have considered the constant challenge to what came before as “modernism” in itself; others have positioned Symbolism (and some other loose “movements”) as anti-modern or challenging modernism. *Most important, most of the artists in question felt their individuality was a kind of artistic modernity itself, even though they often formed groups and shared artistic goals with others.

As the SmartHistory resource has very good material through this period. On the main link below you will see a “contents page” for their coverage in this area; below that is a link to a “chart” with a copy of that page, numbered, in the order that I believe makes the most sense, and marking the minimum that you really should be familiar with (always go off to links if you wish, of course — and/or, keep in mind to come back to for assignments). [Again, you don’t have to follow my order, but if you may be a bit confused about the material – and it is a lot! – I think it would help.]

https://smarthistory.org/tag/symbolism-art-nouveau/ (链接到外部网站。)

Inkedsymbolism_artnouveau_smarthistory_chart_LI-1.jpg

Text key to the above chart:

1. Knopf (Belgian); relation to earlier art / turning to poetry; “strangeness” associated w/ Symbolism.

2. Moreau (Fr.) was very much on his own already in the 1870s; later categorized as a leading Symbolist; this entry is an excellent art historical analysis of a famous painting and also excellent repros showing interesting techniques (click to blow up several of them).

3. Connects Gauguin to a “Symbolist” group known as “The Nabis” (“prophets”); stemmed from the Pont Aven school (rural norther Fr.) centered around Gauguin.

4. How the “Nabis” created decorative “environments”; segues into fluid, more abstract forms of Art Nouveau

5. Art Nouveau (umbrella term for mix of natural forms and new techniques/materials in design; moves across Europe (some offshoots).

6, 7. Klimt; working in “Freud’s Vienna”

8, 9. Munch (Norwegian); The famous “Scream”; good visual analysis mentioning his influence on later artists; Munch picks up on several Post-Impressionist tendencies, moving further into emotion and psychology.

10. Ensor (Belgian)

11. The famous unfinished cathedral, Sagrada Familia, by Antoni Gaudi (Catalonian [northern Spain])

 

http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/nineteenth-century-architecture.htm (链接到外部网站。)

*The Crystal Palace, London, c. 1850: designed for a World’s Fair (a series of which showed innovative technology, art, and design in Europe and then US well into the 20th century), was especially significant for “pre-fab” iron-skeleton construction. In the 1880s: The Eiffel Tower exploited this aspect / designed more to show off construction technique than use; concept of architectural construction as an abstract monument.

Browse “home site” of the Eiffel Tower” below; gives good idea of the scope/development of a public project in Paris at the time; collaboration of architects and Eiffel [engineer; who had contributed to the construction of the Statue of Liberty]):

https://www.toureiffel.paris/en/the-monument/history (链接到外部网站。)

FYI: a list of all publicly accessible Frank Lloyd Wright houses in the US:

https://flwright.org/researchexplore/publicwrightsites (链接到外部网站。)

Art Nouveau architecture (some design):

https://buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/a/artnou.html (链接到外部网站。)

*LATER F.L.WRIGHT: FLW had a long career; we will come back to his last project espeically – our Guggenheim Museum in NY near the end of the semester; however, it MAY make sense for some, or if you are interested, to see these links now:

On “Fallingwater” (1935-6; residence):main page essay: https://fallingwater.org/history/about-fallingwater/designing-fallingwater/ (链接到外部网站。)

Also; https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/later-europe-and-americas/modernity-ap/a/frank-lloyd-wright-fallingwater (链接到外部网站。)

On the Guggeneheim (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum) opened 1958: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/later-europe-and-americas/modernity-ap/a/frank-lloyd-wright-fallingwater (链接到外部网站。)

Archival footage of the opening of the museum:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCqTHm4gIKI (链接到外部网站。)

“Impressionism” was the name given, in a negative sense, by a critic, to a group of paintings exhibited in 1874 that seemed haphazard and unfinished. The relevant artists have some shared and some divergent aspects of style and preferred subject matter; they took on the name and exhibited together as a shifting group for the next dozen years.

*At the Met. Museum site below, browse the row of pictures at top (arrows top right) without going into the descriptions.

Then read the main essay, and then go back, enlarge each picture and read description.

*Please note, fyi: the descriptions as you click each picture give interesting brief data and sometimes are very good examples of descriptive writing for your reference. They are not, however, “research or critical (opinion) essays, but “collection” or “catalogue” entries that could be good for examples in papers; too short to quote from. (See the Met info in the Research module).

*Please note also, often citations are at the end of Met web pages.

tmuseum.org/toah/hd/imml/hd_imml.htm (链接到外部网站。)

Tessa Solomon, “The Women of Impressionism: Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, and Other Pioneering Figures who Shaped the Movement,” ArtNews, July 27, 2020; Solomon_Woman_Artists_of_Impressionism (链接到外部网站。) .

Further details to on the landmark style that came to be known as Impressionism: go the main “Smarthistory” link below (“What Does Impressionism mean”;

Then read the four following sections from the left menu (How the Impressionists go their name; Impressionist Color [*EXCELLENT analysis of painting technique: Impressionist Space [*EXCELLENT analysis of composition], Japonisme (a good review using some works we’ve been looking out, and going into others later that we will be discussing). [After that the site continues with some individual painting analyses, if interested.]

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/avant-garde-france/impressionism/a/what-does-impressionism-mean (链接到外部网站。)

Post-Impressionism shares subject matter of Impressionism / puts form back together in different ways — and even may refer to a kind of “classicism”–but mixed with science and/or emotion, ending up looking very “new.” It was first associated with Georges Seurat, who participated in Impressionist exhibitions and then became more of an umbrella term.

Please view Panopto video 5.

Below is an introductory page on Georges Seurat (Smarthistory website), who exhibited with the Impressionists, but moved away from their aims. Starting there you should read (at least browse thoroughly) the entire section (includes Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cezanne, Toulouse-Lautrec (Left menu; to “sculpture”). These artists have been highly influential–out of proportion, perhaps, considering the many artists exploring similar forms and directions that have hardly received wide notice. However, their works are embedded into the “history of Modernism” for posterity and certainly each was highly dedicated to translating the real world into highly subjective visions. Equally, each of these artists, close in the canonical clique of artists in Paris in their early careers, went in different stylistic directions–but they were joined in their commitment to highly subjective visual translations of the reaL world. The umbrella term, “Post Impressionism” can embrace all, and others of the time (we will look at).

Smarthistory PostImpressionists (链接到外部网站。)

*I have listed below the crucial (minimum) sections assigned as this section is extensive (perhaps browse a few quick links off-track!). You can browse through for the assigned sections or work from the main menu to find each section.

https://smarthistory.org/tag/post-impressionism/ (链接到外部网站。)

Note the “drop down” menus under each artist.

On “Intercontinental” artist, John Singer Sargent (American born; worked largely in Europe; known for portrait “attitudes”): https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/sarg/hd_sarg.htm (链接到外部网站。)

On Van Gogh’s Starry Night : https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/vincent-van-gogh-the-starry-night-1889/ (链接到外部网站。)

On Toulouse-Lautrec (in the essay, click links to illustrations); more visuals at top left [“works online” to browse if you wish]

https://www.moma.org/artists/5910 (链接到外部网站。)

 

 

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