|BME107: Anatomy and Physiology|
TOPICs FOR ASSIGNMENT
Check the blackboard-* under assessment test 3 folder 4 assignment topics For the assignment topic given, please write down the following.
Section A: Microorganism
- Description of type of microorganism
- Write down a relevant case scenario – (using history/ signs symptoms investigation)
- Chain of infection and steps to break the chain
- List out the relevant disinfection and sterilisation method
- Additional mention -carrier, flora, opportunistic pathogen
Section B: Skin topic
- Write about the Skin topic given.
1. Micronanism: Clostridium tetani
- Clostridium tetani
- Gram-negative bacilli.
- Rod-shaped bacteria
- Obligate anaerobe
Case scenario: A 17-year-old was brought to the accident and emergency unit with severe muscle spasms. Noted history of accidental injury and contact with soil 1 week before. The patient has not taken any Tetanus Toxoid vaccine in the past. The patient was having difficulty in breathing and noted muscle twitching’s in the face and difficulty in closing the mouth.
Chain of infection:
Pathogen: Clostridium tetani
Reservoir soil/ rusted particle
Portal of exit: soil/ rusted particle
Methods of transmission: skin, injury to the skin
Portal of entry: enters by a puncture wound
Pathogenicity in the new host: tetanus exists as a spore in the soil. Once they enter the skin, they release toxins. Exotoxins attack the nervous system and cause muscle spasms 3 which can even cause death due to diaphragm paralysis.
Ways to break the chain of infection:
Washing and cleaning the skin wound after contact with soil/ rusted material.
Taking tetanus vaccine
Keeping wound clean
Good hand hygiene.
Disinfection and Sterilization methods:
List the methods which are applicable for this microorganism. Autoclave
Any special mention: (carrier, flora, opportunistic pathogen) It forms spores and is lives in the soil for many years, once it gets a suitable environment, the spore become bacteria again.
Tetanus can be never eradicated.
In Tetanus patients, the risorius muscle is contracted to give them a grin, called risus sardonicus.