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BME107: Anatomy and Physiology TOPICs FOR ASSIGNMENT Check the blackboard-* under assessment test 3 folder 4 assignment topics For the assignment topic given, please write down the following. Section A: Microorganism Description of type of microorganism Write down a relevant case scenario – (using history/ signs symptoms investigation) Chain of infection and steps to break the chain List out the relevant disinfection and sterilisation method Additional mention -carrier, flora, opportunistic pathogen

BME107: Anatomy and Physiology

TOPICs FOR ASSIGNMENT

Check the blackboard-* under assessment test 3 folder 4 assignment topics For the assignment topic given, please write down the following.

Section A: Microorganism

  • Description of type of microorganism
  • Write down a relevant case scenario – (using history/ signs symptoms investigation)
  • Chain of infection and steps to break the chain
  • List out the relevant disinfection and sterilisation method
  • Additional mention -carrier, flora, opportunistic pathogen

Section B: Skin topic

  • Write about the Skin topic given.

1. Micronanism: Clostridium tetani

Type:

  • Clostridium tetani
  • Gram-negative bacilli.
  • Rod-shaped bacteria
  • Obligate anaerobe

Case scenario: A 17-year-old was brought to the accident and emergency unit with severe muscle spasms. Noted history of accidental injury and contact with soil 1 week before. The patient has not taken any Tetanus Toxoid vaccine in the past. The patient was having difficulty in breathing and noted muscle twitching’s in the face and difficulty in closing the mouth.

Chain of infection:

Pathogen: Clostridium tetani

Reservoir soil/ rusted particle

Portal of exit: soil/ rusted particle

Methods of transmission: skin, injury to the skin

Portal of entry: enters by a puncture wound

Pathogenicity in the new host: tetanus exists as a spore in the soil. Once they enter the skin, they release toxins. Exotoxins attack the nervous system and cause muscle spasms 3 which can even cause death due to diaphragm paralysis.

Ways to break the chain of infection:

Washing and cleaning the skin wound after contact with soil/ rusted material.

Taking tetanus vaccine

Keeping wound clean

Good hand hygiene.

Disinfection and Sterilization methods:

List the methods which are applicable for this microorganism. Autoclave

Any special mention: (carrier, flora, opportunistic pathogen) It forms spores and is lives in the soil for many years, once it gets a suitable environment, the spore become bacteria again.

Tetanus can be never eradicated.

In Tetanus patients, the risorius muscle is contracted to give them a grin, called risus sardonicus.

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