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SOE09701: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT in a Global Context 1.Using Porter’sFive Forces Framework, analyze the attractiveness of the South East Asian Airline industry for low-cost new entrants. Draw on relevant industry examples to support your answer.

SOE09701: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT in a Global Context

1.Using Porter’sFive Forces Framework, analyze the attractiveness of the South East Asian Airline industry for low-cost new entrants. Draw on relevant industry examples to support your answer.

2.Drawing on your knowledge of Porter’sgeneric strategies, discuss the competitive strategy of an organization of your choice and evaluate the potential risks associated with building or sustaining their competitive advantage.

3.“Academic studies have shown that between 50% and 70% of all mergers and acquisitions (M&A)fail, in that they don’t live up to the financial promise.”

Consider the various methods of growth available to organizations, and highlight the reasons why most mergers and acquisitions fail.

4. A Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a large Chinese electronics manufacturer wants to enter the North American and European markets. After their latest strategic review, the CEO is proposing that the electronics manufacturer should enter these markets through the implementation of a multi-domestic strategy. However, other members of the senior management team feel a global strategy is more appropriate.

5. Using the Integration-Responsiveness Grid, you have been asked by the Board to prepare a report on the advantages and disadvantages of each international strategy choice and make recommendations on how the electronics manufacturer should proceed.

Using the cultural web framework, analyze the culture of an organization of your choice. Evaluate how the existing culture has helped or delayed the implementation of a strategic change in that organization.

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MNGT3002: Knowledge Management Overview You are a consultant engaged to analyse and assess the organisation’s current KM capacity. You may project the future KM needs, and offer recommendations if you wish to round your analysis off. Fortunately, you went to University before becoming a consultant so you understand the advantage of conducting deep academic research and using the acade

MNGT3002: Knowledge Management

Overview

You are a consultant engaged to analyse and assess the organisation’s current KM capacity. You may project the future KM needs, and offer recommendations if you wish to round your analysis off.

Fortunately, you went to University before becoming a consultant so you understand the advantage of conducting deep academic research and using the academic convention to write your report including Purpose and Description The purpose of this assignment is for you to analyse and assess the KM situation in one core/predominant* area of knowledge management for an organisation. In doing so you will provide a response informed by research to an individual organisation’s existing KM situation.

Organisational analysis (current)
KM systems/response analysis (positives/negatives)
Mastery of KM terminology/processes
Presentation/Referencing

considerable knowledge to analyse your organisations current KM situation. After ‘drilling down’ you may focus your strategy on one KEY area of operations (i.e. a strategy/HR focus may drill down to predominate recruitment) but remember, you still need a comprehensive assessment and
evaluation of the larger area.

As your focus is strategic, an existing KM system in your organisation will create no disadvantage to your project. You should include it in your analysis and assessment.

*Please note that specialisation in one area does not mean that you should ignore all other areas.

Excellent reports will recognise how their area, recommendations and options fit within the bigger KM picture. For example, you may be focussing on ICT systems but recognition of the right skill mixes through HR, culture needs/ development, reward systems etc must also be considered. Similarly, social
or HR systems are supported/impacted by IT and should be identified.

CAUTION: Please do not report that the organisation should contract someone to analyse their current strengths and weaknesses ‐ this is your job – they have contacted you ‐ you will not get paid (nor will you get good grades) if your predominate advice is to tell them to do it themselves. To do well you should demonstrate the ability to analyse an organisations KM requirements (according to your area of choice) considering elements of core knowledge, operational knowledge and strategic knowledge.

a willingness to consider and break down the pros and cons of each element of your analysis according to the particular characteristics of the organisation’s needs.

good to a superior understanding of KM practices and principles through the correct use of key terminology and correct application.

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Question 1 Explain how the supply chain of an electronics company (any company of your choice that produces and/or sells consumer electronic products, such as TVs, cameras, handphones, smart appliances, etc) impacts society. In your answer you should include the following: (a) Discuss the main positive and negative impacts of the company on society. You should make close references to its supply chain processes/operations and product(s).

LOG201: Supply Chain Management

Question 1

Explain how the supply chain of an electronics company (any company of your choice that produces and/or sells consumer electronic products, such as TVs, cameras, handphones, smart appliances, etc) impacts society. In your answer you should include the following:

(a) Discuss the main positive and negative impacts of the company on society. You should make close references to its supply chain processes/operations and product(s).

(b) Imagine you are the decision-maker of the company and would like to further enhance the social impact of the company. Propose one (1) initiative for the company that can help it enhance its social impact. The initiative may be a standalone effort by the company or a collaborative arrangement with its supply chain parties. You should come up with a novel idea. Please provide reasons and references to justify your answer

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ICT133: Structured Programming Question 1. You are to write a C program that accepts three integer values from the user representing the three sides of a triangle. Your program should report to the user if it is a valid triangle and what sort of a triangle: equilateral, scalene or isosceles. (Hint: a triangle is only valid if the sum of any given pair of sides is greater than the remaining side.) Your solution does not ne

ICT133: Structured Programming

Question 1.

You are to write a C program that accepts three integer values from the user representing the three sides of a triangle. Your program should report to the user if it is a valid triangle and what sort of a triangle: equilateral, scalene or isosceles. (Hint: a triangle is only valid if the sum of any given pair of sides is greater than the remaining side.)

Your solution does not need to be modular and so a high-level algorithm is not required, although you are welcome to include one if you wish.

 

Question 2.

You should read this question as if the change giver is a bank teller who has to give amounts of money to customers but can’t count

You are asked to write a simple C program that will accept an integer value in the range of 5-95 and as a multiple of 5 representing the number of cents to give to a customer in their change.

The program should calculate how many coins are of each denomination and display this to the user. Valid coin values are 50, 20, 10 and 5. Your solution (program and algorithm) should be modular in nature. This requires the submission of a high-level algorithm and suitable decompositions of each step.

Note that for this problem the principle of code reuse is particularly important and a significant number of marks are allocated to this.

You should attempt to design your solution such that it consists of a relatively small number of functions that are as general in design as possible and you should have one function in particular that can be reused (called repeatedly) in order to solve the majority of the problem.

If you find that you have developed a large number of functions that each performs a similar task (or have a lot of repeated code) then attempt to analyse your design to generalise the logic so that it may be reused.

Question 3

You are to extend your solution to Question 2 above by allowing the user to enter the amount of change as dollars and cents as a double (real number). Valid dollar values are 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1.

Your program should output the correct combination of dollar and cent denominations required and should be able to work for any valid dollar amounts. Cents amounts maybe should be multiples of 5 as in the previous question.

In this question, you will need to explicitly convert a double to an integer to break the inputted double down to its component parts as integers. You can use the following code as the basis for doing this:
float change; int dollar, cents;
dollar = (int) change;

cents = (int) (((change — dollar)*100) + 0.5);

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Annotated Bibliography in Grief Therapy An annotated bibliography is a list of bibliographic citations that includes a descriptive and evaluative paragraph of each citation. Each annotated bibliography has a word limit of 300 words and is written out in ONE (1) paragraph. The cited source must be a peer-reviewed article. For this assignment, you need to submit a total of THREE (3) bibliographies where each is graded based on the following components:

Annotated Bibliography in Grief Therapy

An annotated bibliography is a list of bibliographic citations that includes a descriptive and evaluative paragraph of each citation. Each annotated bibliography has a word limit of 300 words and is written out in ONE (1) paragraph.

The cited source must be a peer-reviewed article. For this assignment, you need to submit a total of THREE (3) bibliographies where each is graded based on the following components:

  •  begin each summary with a full reference of the article (this is the citation);
  • (leave an empty line spacing to begin the bibliography);
  • report the aims and objectives of the article;
  • describe briefly the key points of the source’s method of research;
  • describe how the article is relevant to your observation or opinion (i.e., similarities with and/or differences from your own perspectives on how psychology can be applied);
  • explain briefly the article’s implications that may have expanded your views on how psychology could be applied; and
  • using up to 300 words to present each summary. A cover page that adheres to the standards of the American Psychological Association (APA; 6th) writing convention must be included in your final submitted draft.

However, do not include an “abstract” section and “reference” sections. The contents of your writing should also adhere to the APA (6th) writing format standards. This assignment is based on individual effort. Both the softcopy and hardcopy of the annotated bibliography are due on To select citations related to hypnotherapy, grief therapy and bereavement.

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NX9524: Digital Business Instructions on Assessment: Infographic and self-reflective essay  (Individual submission; Using the template provided) 1.Students are required to produce an infographic that applies a concept presented in the lectures or seminars to a real organisation. The infographic will be accompanied by a full reference list and should provide insights on the following 3 areas: Opportunities and challenges that the chosen organisation faces when utilising digital channels (MLO1); The roles that different business functions (e.g. marketing, finance, HR etc.) have played in the organisation’s attempt to deliver a successful digital operation (MLO2); Issues surrounding customer privacy and security tha

NX9524: Digital Business

Instructions on Assessment:

Infographic and self-reflective essay

(Individual submission; Using the template provided)

1.Students are required to produce an infographic that applies a concept presented in the lectures or seminars to a real organisation. The infographic will be accompanied by a full reference list and should provide insights on the following 3 areas:

  • Opportunities and challenges that the chosen organisation faces when utilising digital channels (MLO1);
  • The roles that different business functions (e.g. marketing, finance, HR etc.) have played in the organisation’s attempt to deliver a successful digital operation (MLO2);
  • Issues surrounding customer privacy and security that the chosen organisation may face when engaging in digital business (MLO4).

2. Students are required to write a 500-words self-reflective essay and summary based upon their infographic which, using supporting evidence, will:

  • Identify and discuss the single biggest challenge their chosen organisation faces when doing business digitally;
  • Provide two recommendations for how the organisations can tackle this challenge moving forward.

Guidelines and further details on topic selection and the process of producing the infographic are accessible through the e-Learning Portal.

During the semester you will be supported through the assessment process via:

  • Seminar sessions: In week 4 there will be a seminar dedicated to cover the core concepts regarding what is an infographic, what is the systematic process of producing an infographic, what are some of the common tools used for producing infographics and how further resources can be obtained on tools and processes associated with producing infographics.
  • Lecture sessions: In addition to discussing existing key concepts and upcoming trends and issues related to digital business during the lecture sessions, part of the week 4 lecture will cover further guidance on topic selection.
  • E-Learning portal: Selected useful resources and guidance notes related to the assignment will be made available throughout the semester via the e-learning portal.
  • Seminar tutors: We have a discussion board open for students to utilise.

 

Mapping to Programme Goals and Objectives

This assessment will contribute directly to the following Undergraduate programme goals and

objectives.

Goal 1 – Knowledgeable about the theory and practice of responsible business and management in an international context

Students will be able to:

1.Acquire knowledge of contemporary professional practice in business and management informed by theory and research.

2.Apply knowledge of business and management to complex problems in professional practice in order to identify justifiable, sustainable and responsible solutions

3.Conduct innovative and/or entrepreneurial project work and research

4.Acquire an awareness of the cultural and ethical contexts in which international business operates

Goal 2– Skilful in the use of professional and managerial techniques and processes

Students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate creative and critical thinking skills that involve independence, understanding, justification and the ability to challenge the thinking of self and others

Goal 3 – Prepared for career and personal progression

Students will be able to:

1.Provide evidence of self-reflection as a means of informing personal development planning

2. Evidence skills and attitudes for progression to post-graduate contexts including professional work, entrepreneurship and higher-level study

Supporting Information

The topic of the Infographic

Eg: 1 Artificial Intelligence and its impact on Comfort Delgro

Eg: 2 Blockchain positive disruption to MediaCorp

NOTE: there should only be 1 title. (the above are showing you two titles as examples. Your actual submission should only have 1 title)

(you should only have 1 title – ie: only statement as illustrated below, no more than 1)

Eg 1: IoT and its impact on operational efficiency for Company B (the name of the local company)

Eg 2: Artificial Intelligence and its impact on Company A’s Marketing

Eg 3: Blockchain and its impact on company A’s logistic / operation

Eg 4: Big data and its impact on customer experience and operation management performance.

What other tech applications that you could have also done for this assignment and company but you didn’t do it.

Eg: IoT application for Comfort Delgro

Eg: the Study of big data on traffic management for Comfort Delgro

Eg: AI possibilities for Media Corp on Robo-publishing

If you have chosen “Deep learning and impact on marketing effectiveness for Company B”, then what are the other technology that might be considered as relevant topics for this company as well?

Eg: Artificial Intelligence; Big Data; Self Service Economy (just name 2 to 3 other relevant topics which might also be a technology that can improve the company’s biz

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T25: Diploma In Pharmaceutical Science A 30 years old male patient approach you to ask for counselling information with regards to a medication he bought for loose stool complaints about him and his son. Below is the product leaflet in the box Janssen Loperamide hydrochloride (HCI) Imodium’ capsules WHAT IS IMODIUM° FOR? MOD Uke is used Calmat diarrhoea, IPACIOIUM. makes the gods more aced and less frequent. You can take IMODIUMP 2MG CAPS

T25: Diploma In Pharmaceutical Science

A 30 years old male patient approach you to ask for counselling information with regards to a medication he bought for loose stool complaints about him and his son. Below is the product leaflet in the box

Janssen

Loperamide hydrochloride (HCI) Imodium’ capsules

 

WHAT IS IMODIUM° FOR?

MOD Uke is used Calmat diarrhoea, IPACIOIUM. makes the gods more aced and less frequent.

You can take IMODIUMP 2MG CAPSULE for sudden (acute) diarrhoea or long-lasting (chronic) diarrhoea You may also be oven I/100101A* 2MG CAPSULE if you have a pan of your intestines removed as this often causes diarrhoea

WHEN NOT TO TAKE IMODIUM 2MG CAPSULE

Do not get INIODILIVP 21(IG CAPSULE to children under 2 years Do not use IMODIUPT 2MG CAPSULE

• if there Is blood In your stools you have a high temperature •

of your nave Inflammation of the lower bowel dor example. ulcerative ogles cr pseudomembranous corms as a result of using antibiotics). • if your Oxley has told you that you have a carbon where slowing of the intestine should be avoided.

for example. if you are constipated or your abdomen is swollen: • if you know you are allergic (hypersensitive) to lope carried HCI a co e of the other trig regents If in doubt ask your phermaCel a doctor for advice

WHAT SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS SHOULD YOU TAKE?

• Although IlitrODIU/Ar2MG CAPSULE stops danger It will not treat the cause of it Whenever possible the cause of the donate should also be treated

• When you have diarrhoea, you  we lose a lot of Muds You should therefore replace lost fluids by taking much more liquid than you normally would This is especially impotent for small children Your pharmacist will be able to Supply a special power that

contains sugar and salts When added to water, it will also replace the salts that are lost during a bout of darned Tres solution is particularly suitable for children

• For sudden (acute) diarrhoea, IMODIUM’2M0 CAPSULE will usually stop the symptoms within 48 hours. If it does not, stop taking the medicine and see your doctor.

• If you have AIDS and are being treated with 2MG CAPSULE for diarrhoea and if you have any signs of abdominal swelling or bulging stop taking IMODIUMk2MG CAPSULE immediately and tell your doctor

• Do rot lake this product for anything other than its intended use and never take more than the recommended amount Seams heart problems (symptoms of which include fast or irregular heartbeat) have been reported in patients who have taken too much loperamide, the active ingredient in IMODIUM

• 2MG CAPSULE.

• Do rot abuse and misuse IMODIUMT 2MG CAPSULE.
Children IMCOIUM° 2MG CAPSULE should not be given to children under 2 years and should only be given to children under 6 years if your doctor has prescribed it 0110 Pregnancy. If you are or think you may be, pregnant, you should inform your doctor who will decide if you can take Imodium 2MG CAPSULE

breast-feeding You are advised not to take IMCOIUMT2MG CAPSULE if you are breastfeeding because SMMI arms-Its of IMODIUMk2MG CAPSULE can end up in your Milk Driving or operating machinery Tiredness dizziness, or drowsiness can be seen wan diarrhoea If this happens do not drive or use any machines.

3) Mrs Tan is a middle-aged female accountant who presents to your pharmacy with nasal congestion and a slight fever. Her daughter has taken her temperature readings for her. She wishes to get some cold and flu remedies from you.

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Case study Mdm Amina, 26, and her husband approached you for financial assistance at Evergreen Family Service Centre. She had requested for financial assistance, in particular, cash, food rations, pampers and milk due to her recent unemployment upon finding out that she was pregnant with

SWK291: Social Work Practice and Skills Lab I: Working with Individuals and Families

Question 1
Read the case study below and answer all the questions.

Case study

Mdm Amina, 26, and her husband approached you for financial assistance at Evergreen Family Service Centre. She had requested for financial assistance, in particular, cash, food rations, pampers and milk due to her recent unemployment upon finding out that she was pregnant with twins. Prior to that, she was working as a cleaner with her husband Mr Ahmad, 24 at Balsam Condominium. The couple has two children, Adam, 6 and Aqil, 2. Adam was born to Mdm Amina and her then-boyfriend, Mr. Ismail. She had decided to leave him as a result of his frequent abusive behavior towards both Mdm Amina and her son.

Mdm Amina met Mr. Ahmad through mutual friends. Mdm Amina felt that Mr. Ahmad was very caring towards her. He would be quick to apologize and make up with sweet words and gifts whenever the couple quarreled. This really impressed Mdm Amina. The couple decided to get married 6 months after dating when they found out that Mdm Amina was pregnant with Mr. Ahmad’s child. Though initially, there were some objections from the extended family, they soon decided to give their blessings and get the couple married off.

The couple and children stay in a 2-room rental flat in Chai Chee along with Mdm Amina’s mother, Mdm Jamilah, 42, a widow, her boyfriend Mr Johari, 62 and Mdm Jamilah’ s sic very poor mobility and has a number of medical complications but is seeking assistance from the Medical Social Worker at Tan Tock Seng

Hospital. He is not required to make any payment for his medicines. The family also rear two pet cats and three parrots in the flat.

The main breadwinner of the family is Mr. Ahmad. His take-home pay is $1200. Mr. Johari is engaged in ad hoc delivery work due to his poor health. He suffers from asthma. Mdm Jamilah does home-based bridal makeup and takes home about $800 per month. However, she is planning to quit this job as her boyfriend feels that it is his role to “maintain her.”

The family was barely coping. Thus, Mdm Amina’s current pregnancy has caused further concern for all. Mdm Amina states that she is totally against some of her friends’ advice to go for abortion as “it is God’s will and she has no right to go against it.” Her mother in law, Mdm Junaid, 40, a divorcee had recommended that she receive some government assistance just like her. She is receiving $600 as she is unable to work as she has to take care of her 17-year-old daughter with special needs. Her 2 other daughters stay with her ex-husband and have no contact with her or Mr. Ahmad.

Throughout your brief intake session with the couple, Mr. Ahmad remains very quiet. When probed, he looks at Mdm Amina and says something in Malay. Occasionally he states “I don’t know English, I understand but cannot talk, better you talk to my wife.”

a)Illustrate the key details of Mdm Amina and her family by drawing a genogram and an ecomap. Include explanation notes to the diagrams. Please use the Singapore social work context. (10 marks)

b)Analyze the concerns of the family using the micro, mezzo and macro-level practice. There is no need to include interventions for concerns. Please be detailed when describing the concerns and how it affects the family. (30 marks)

c) It is often said that culture places a big part in working with individuals and families. Explain culture and how it is evident in the above case study. Identify and describe in detail 4 cultural considerations that you need to take note when working with Mdm Amina’s Family.

d) Demonstrate in detail any two (2) personal biases, stereotypes and/or judgmental tendencies that the family is likely to evoke in you. Discuss how would you overcome this so as not to negatively impact your work with the family?

e) Examine any 2 challenges that you are likely to face working with Mdm Amina’s family. The answer to this question should be different from that of (d).

f)You will be assessed on Grammar, organization, and citations. (10 marks)

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BUS105: Statistics The COVID-19 pandemic had changed the working lifestyle of many people. The work-from-home policy had caused most workers to be more sedentary. We sit hours and hours in front of our computers and often in less than ideal postures. Anyone with common sense will know this is going

BUS105: Statistics

The COVID-19 pandemic had changed the working lifestyle of many people. The work-from-home policy had caused most workers to be more sedentary. We sit hours and hours in front of our computers and often in less than ideal postures. Anyone with common sense will know this is going to affect our health. In fact, it will shorten our life quite substantially! According to a longitudinal study, sedentary lifestyle is linked to double mortality risk (European Society of Cardiology, 2019).

Therefore, no one can dispute the fact that exercising is beneficial to health. The question is how much exercise is considered enough? It turns out that medical and fitness experts provided a wide range of answers. The HealthXchange.sg had provided a tip on this based on the guidelines from the World Health Organisation.

It mentioned that ‘adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity a week.’ (Chumari, n.d.) However, a recent article in The New York Times (Reynolds, 2020) reported that ’11 minutes of exercise a day may help counter the effects of sitting’.

Of course, the sweet spot is about 35 minutes of moderate activities per day. The interesting point to note is there was similar research done in 2016 and the recommendation was 60 to 75 minutes of moderate exercise per day (University of Cambridge, 2016). So, why was there such a large difference given that it was similar research?

It turns out that the difference is in the methodology of data collection (Reynolds, 2020). In the 2016 research, people were asked to recall their activity and sedentary time. Unfortunately, humans are unreliable in narrating their life. They tend to overestimate physical activity and underestimate their sedentary time.

In the 2020 research, many authors of the 2016 reviews decided to repeat the study but with the participants wearing activity monitors. This research provided a more accurate result which was drastically different from the earlier report. Being a sharp student in Statistics, you picked up on the important point of accurate data collection methodology. You decided to try it out on your coursemates.

Initially, you have asked 100 coursemates to give an estimate of their average sedentary time in a day. Thereafter, you asked them to wear an activity monitoring device and calculated their average daily sedentary time objectively. The recordings were found in the dataset provided.

Question 1

(a) Describe the central tendency of average daily sedentary time for both measurements using relevant Excel reports. Determine the standard deviation and interquartile range of average daily sedentary time for both measurements and explain how you decide on the appropriate use of the two measures of dispersion.

(b) Using appropriate charts and numerical measures, develop a summary report to address the issue of human tends to underestimate their sedentary time. You are expected to provide interpretation to the charts and numerical measures. You are not required to do any further inferential analysis. The word limit is 300 words. Please indicate the word count at the end of your answer.

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BME201e: Biomedical Ethics Learning Outcome Knowledge & Understanding (Theory Component) Discuss the meaning of ethics, different ethical theories, and its applications in the area of the biomedical sector. Compare traditional and current issues in biomedical ethic

BME201e: Biomedical Ethics

Learning Outcome

Knowledge & Understanding (Theory Component)

  • Discuss the meaning of ethics, different ethical theories, and its applications in
    the area of the biomedical sector.
  • Compare traditional and current issues in biomedical ethics.
  • Explain theories of ethics: teleological and deontological.

Key Skills (Practical Component)

  • Discuss in-depth the pros and cons of each ethical problem presented,
    and compare and contrast the different ethical views on the same problem.
  • Apply the ethical decision tool as a guide in making an ethical decision.
  • Examine potential ethical dilemmas in their work as a biomedical engineer,
    (e.g. in research, allocation of the life-sustaining machines).
  • Recommend possible actions to be taken in responses to these dilemmas
  • Identify the probable consequences of those actions.

Dozens of recent clinical trials contain suspicious statistical patterns that could indicate incorrect or falsified data, according to a review of thousands of papers published in leading medical journals.

The study, which used statistical tools to identify anomalies hidden in the data, has prompted investigations into some of the trials identified as a suspect and raises new concerns about the reliability of some papers published in medical journals.

The analysis was carried out by John Carlisle, a consultant anaesthetist at Torbay Hospital, who previously used similar statistical tools to expose one of the most egregious cases of scientific fraud on record, involving a Japanese anesthesiologist who was found to have fabricated data in many of his 183 retracted scientific papers.

In the latest study, Carlisle reviewed data from 5,087 clinical trials published during the past 15 years in two prestigious medical journals, Jama and the New England Journal of Medicine, and six anaesthesia journals. In total, 90 published trials had underlying statistical patterns that were unlikely to appear by chance in a credible dataset, the review concluded.

“This raises serious questions about data in some studies,” said Carlisle. “Innocent or not, the rate of error is worrying as we determine how to treat patients based upon this evidence,” he added.

Dr Andrew Klein, the editor-in-chief of Anaesthesia, which has published the new analysis, called for the studies identified as potentially flawed to be reviewed urgently.

“It’s very scary that we may be treating patients based on false evidence,” he said. “It may be the case that certain treatments may need to be withdrawn from use.”

The tool works by comparing the baseline data, such as the height, sex, weight and blood pressure of trial participants, to known distributions of these variables in a random sample of the populations.

If the baseline data differs significantly from expectation, this could be a sign of errors or data tampering on the part of the researcher, since if datasets have been fabricated they are unlikely to have the right pattern of random variation. In the case of Japanese scientist, Yoshitaka Fuji, the detection of such anomalies triggered an investigation that concluded more than 100 of his papers had been entirely fabricated.

Klein said that in some cases the anomalies could be put down to “misinterpretation, statistical error or plain simple mistakes”, such as transcribing data wrongly or mislabelling a column.

The latest study identified 90 trials that had skewed baseline statistics, 43 of which with measurements that had about a one in a quadrillion probability of occurring by chance.

Cut-throat academia leads to ‘natural selection of bad science’, claims study

The review includes a full list of the trials in question, allowing Carlisle’s methods to be checked but also potentially exposing the authors to criticism. Previous large scale studies of erroneous results have avoided singling out authors.

Relevant journal editors were informed last month, and the editors of the six anesthesiology journals named in the study said they plan to approach the authors of the trials in question, and raised the prospect of triggering in-depth investigations in cases that could not be explained.

Klein called for journals to adopt similar screening tools, in the interests of scientific integrity. “There is no excuse for any medical journal reporting randomised controlled trials not to [do so],” he said.

Sir David Spiegelhalter, professor for the public understanding of risk at the University of Cambridge, said that the outlier papers ought to be looked at closely, but cautioned against attributing a cause for the discrepancies at this stage. “This is a real danger of a classic ‘prosecutor’s fallacy,” he said. “Just because fabricators had a good chance of producing non-random data, does not mean that non-randomness means a good chance of fabrication.”

A spokeswoman for the New England Journal of Medicine said they had not had access to the list of papers cited until publication, but that the editors were taking the issue seriously and would carefully review all information.

Howard Bauchner, the editor-in-chief of Jama, also responded, saying: “We receive numerous allegations about various issues related to the articles we publish. After we assess the validity of the allegation, we will determine the next steps. We certainly believe authors have a right to respond to allegations that are important.”

Question 1

(a) Discuss at least FIVE (5) possible reasons why researchers may falsify their research data. Your answer should include additional reasons not found in the article.

(b) You are working as a research assistant under a well-liked research scientist. While going through the clinical data collected, you found that he may have falsified the research data in order to get the research published. Examine the ethical issues present in helping you decide whether or not to report him to the authorities.

(c) If you are from a government agency in charge of scientific research, recommend the various steps you would take to prevent such incidents from happening in the future.