**(i)** Which semiconductor properties can be obtained from measurements of the absorption coefficient?**(ii)** Estimate the bandgap of Si and GaAs using Figure 1. Compare the obtained values with values estimated in figure 2. What is the smallest value for the energy of a direct optical transition for Si (Figure 1).**(iii)** Neglecting any reflection losses, calculate the depth at which 95% of a 500 nm light beam has been absorbed in CuInSe2 and in Si (use Figure 2) given that absorptivity (α) is related to distance (d) by:

α ≈(1/d)ln(I0/I)

Figure 1. Energy band structure of Si and GaAs.

Figure 2. Absorption spectra of various semiconductors.

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Identify the processes numbered in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Processes that determine the efficiency of a solar cell.

Below are the characteristics for three record efficiency devices (X, Y, Z)

**Cell X**

**Cell Y**

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