304SE: Power Systems Question 1 You are required to prepare a report on the Electrical Power System of a specific country. Select one country. The country that you select must start with the first letter of your first name (For example if your first name is Marie then you choose a country name that starts with the letter M ( for example Malaysia)).

304SE: Power Systems

Question 1

You are required to prepare a report on the Electrical Power System of a specific country. Select one country. The country that you select must start with the first letter of your first name (For example if your first name is Marie then you choose a country name that starts with the letter M ( for example Malaysia)).

The following are the general guidelines for preparing the report.

You are encouraged to obtain and review information from websites of Electricity Authorities, IEEE, IET, International Energy Agency, and/or similar Associations for preparing reports.  Please include a list of references in the Appendix (not included in word count)

You must cite references for data, graphs, charts, figures, illustrations, and diagrams in your report.

You are encouraged to use the following Section Headings in preparing your report for this question.

1.Introduction                                     

Provide a brief description of background information of the Electrical Power System of the chosen country.

2.Electricity Generation Mix

Obtain the latest information about Electricity Generation Mix, Installed Capacity, maximum demand, reserve margin from the reliable source(s) and present it in the form of graphs/charts. Provide analysis and description of electricity generation mix of the selected country.

3.Power System Network

Sketch a representative single line diagram of the power system network and briefly describe technologies used for the generation, transmission, and distribution systems.  Indicate various power ratings and voltage levels used.

4.Electricity Market

Tabulate the latest information of Annual energy generated in GWh, Annual load factor, and Electricity Tariff.  Provide your analysis and observations.

What would be your recommendations for reducing annual energy consumption and improving the annual load factor? State reasons for your recommendations.

5.Renewable Energy

Obtain the latest information about types of renewable energy and contribution by renewable energy in electricity generation and present it in the form graph/chart.

What are future plans of the selected country in respect of renewable energy (present it in the form of graph/chart)?  Provide your comments and observations.

6.Summary and Conclusions

What observations and conclusions you can draw based on this study of the electrical power system of the specific country?  Highlight key features of the report. What are your recommendations for the improvements to the electricity authority of the country?

Question 2

Figure 2 shows the circuit of a simple power system. The ratings of the generators, transformers, and motors are as shown in the figure. The reactance of lines 1 and 2 is 40 W and 50 W respectively. Assume that system is unloaded, and the generators are generating their rated voltage. Select the generator G1 ratings as base values.

Choose the fault location for your calculations based on the last digit of your student number as indicated in the following table:

Last Digit of Your Student Number Fault Location
0 – 3 Bus 1
4 – 6 Bus 2
7 – 9 Bus 3

For asymmetrical three-phase fault on the bus selected by you:

(i) Draw the reactance diagram for the fault with all the reactances marked in per unit.

(ii)  Determine Thevenin’s equivalent circuit which can be used to calculate the fault current.

(iii)Calculate the fault current in ampere and fault power in MVA.

(iv)  Calculate the fault current contribution from the generator connected to the bus on which you have selected for fault calculation.

Question 3

A four-bus power system is shown in Figure 3. Bus-1 is a slack bus. Bus -4 is a PV buss, and the other two buses are PQ buses. The initial voltages of the slack and PV buses are as shown in the figure. The data for the buses are given in table-1 below. The values of the real and reactive power shown in the table are on a base of 100 MVA.

The line impedances in per unit and real and reactive power in per unit are on a common base. Assume the initial value of the angle at the PV bus to bezero (0) and the voltages at buses 2 and 3 to be 1.0 .

Bus No.

(pu)

d (deg.) Generation Load Type
MW MVAR MW MVAR
1 1.05 0.0 0 0 Swing
2 0.0 0.0 80 60 Load
3 0.0 0.0 100 60 Load
4 1.04 100 40 30 Gen

Table-1    Base MVA=100

Choose the line impedances for your calculations based on the last digit of your student number as indicated in the following table:

Last Digit of Your Student Number Z12 = Z34 Z13 = Z24 Z23
0 – 3 0.03 + j0.16 0.04 + j0.18 0.06 + j 0.38
4 – 6 0.04 + j0.18 0.02 + j 0.2 0.08 + j0.4
7 – 9 0.05 + j0.20 0.03 + j0.22  

 

(a) Create the circuit, in “PowerWorld” software. Assume a base power of 100 MVA. All the field values such as voltage and phase angle at every bus and real and reactive power at both ends of every line must be included in the circuit. The created circuit diagram(before simulation) must be included in your report.

(b) Simulate the circuit using the Gauss-Seidel iterative method for a single iteration.Record the values of the voltage magnitudes in pu and phase angle in degrees at buses 2,3 and 4. The simulated diagram with all the field values clearly shown must be included in your report.

(c)        Calculate the bus admittance matrix for the circuit using the impedance values given in the table. Print out the bus impedance matrix generated by the PowerWorldprogramand compares it with the bus impedance matrix calculated by you.

(d)Calculate the voltage in pu and the phase angle in degrees at bus 2 and 3 after the first iteration using the Gauss-Seidel method and compare it with the results recorded in part (b)

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